Logo fiat lux



Potatoes are in many countries one of the most common and simple foods. Have you ever wondered how important potatoes really are in our diet? There are thousands of potato varieties cultivated everywhere around the world, representing 300 million metric tons of crops, or in other words the third most important food crop in the world (Potato Facts and Figures, CIP International Potato Center). We can therefore consider potato crops as a major element for food security. Potato is an essential food source: for instance, from 1845 to 1852, a massive destruction of potato crops, from which the Irish population was relying on, caused a big famine, also called “The Irish Potato Famine”. It was responsible for the death of a million people and the flee of two million people. Ireland's global population decreased by one third (Gillissen, 2015).
gmt-2021-final In Switzerland, the blackleg disease is the first cause of removal of the market of potato lots (Rouffiange et al. , 2014), by causing the loss of tens of hectares of crops. Climate change is exacerbating this issue: the effects of increased greenhouse gasses concentrations, now more than ever, are being felt. 2021 is the 7th consecutive year (2015-2021) where global temperature has been over one celsius degree above pre-industrial temperature (according to the World meteorological organization).
In Europe for that matter, “the major effects reported on Climate Change are reduced water availability and a shorter suitable winter time slot for potato production” (Haverkort, A.J., Verhagen, 2008). Since there will be longer heat waves and humidity, pathogens might also be more and more present (Romero et al, 2021).
Both insects and pests are the main explanation for crop damage and yield loss. Right now, the easiest way to limit crop damage is by using pesticides: it is the most widely used form of crop protection. However, these products are worsening environmental and human health problems. Among them, we can note a particularly huge decline of insects, including pollinators. Non negligible amounts of greenhouse gasses are emitted during pesticide manufacturing: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide (Heimpel GE, Yang Y, Hill JD, Ragsdale DW 2013). For example, phosphate mining for pesticide production causes major damages to the ecosystems and pollutes the environment (Wozniacka G. 2019).
Moreover, the rising heat of water due to climate change worsens pesticides damages on aquatic life (Folmar, LC, Sanders HO, Julin AM. 1979). Indeed, the rate of animal and plant extinction tends to accelerate: there’s more and more imbalances in natural systems creating larger outbreaks of pests and weeds. According to soil scientists, regarding the current soil destruction, human health will be seriously endangered within 50 years. Food crops might also provide less and we will not have enough fertile arable land to feed ourselves (Thiel T, Drossel B. 2018). Human health is at risk as long as pesticide use and climate change coexist. Pesticides, even in small quantities can cause diverse health issues and diseases (Lau WKM, Kim KM. 2021). It becomes quite clear that we need to develop more sustainable solutions: here you can find a link to our sustainable development page.

It is urgent to develop and use more sustainable ways to protect our crops!

Our solution...

Click on Luxie's thoughts to find out more!


FIAT LUX was born from our will to create a project for a more planet-friendly society, and the influence of several actors: we discovered Dickeya plant pathogens, because our PI teachers, at the MAP lab, worked on this genus, so we decided to investigate it. We contacted inov3PT, a research institute that studies Dickeya, amongst other potato plant pathogens, and they introduced us to the blackleg disease, caused by Dickeya solani. They were the ones who made us realize the huge food losses due to this disease. Our PI already had the ilux operon, so we came up with the idea of using bioluminescence to track pathogen bacteria in plants and help inov3PT and other research labs develop new treatments for crops diseases. That is how we decided, since the beginning, to use Dickeya solani as our proof of concept. With this idea in mind, we contacted and had talks with all of the following actors to truly grasp the issues, the stakes and the organization of this sector.

This led us to investigate...


... and reach out to a broad variety of stakeholders


Understanding the context of agriculture, more specifically regarding potatoes:
We tried to meet as many actors of the potato industry as we could, in order to understand not only the sector, but also how our tool could help every single stakeholder. Through our encounters, we were able to reconstruct the following scheme of the organization of the potato sector in France.


Marine, a team member, on board of a potato tractor on Olivier Loridan's farm


Potato preservation box in Olivier Loridan's farm

Throughout the project, we were able to meet with the different professional institutions of the seed and potato production sector, law makers, plant research institutes, producers' and farmers' unions, different types of farmers with different visions and methods, as well as consumers. These meetings, as shown on this diagram, made us realize the importance of the production chains, and research process, from the conception of the variety to the sale in industry and in detail to the consumers. But above all, it showed us the importance of communicating on the difficulty of setting up new ways of producing that are satisfactory for the producers, for sanitary norms, for the final customers in terms of quality, price and aesthetics . These difficulties supported the need for our tool to help scientists to develop remedies more quickly as the turnover, of potato species in particular, is slow.

Food security is the challenge of the 21st century. Throughout our work, we tried to understand the needs of the people in charge of producing and selling food to the population. The aim was to identify precisely the challenges they have to face, in order to design a tool in line with the current issues.


We first considered what type of research is done in the industry, in order to have a global idea of all the challenges that the stakeholders have to face. Arvalis, the plant institute, the main institute conducting applied agricultural research, focuses on 4 aspects:
  • Sobriety with added synthesis product and control of potato health
  • Controlling environmental footprint and adapting to climate change
  • Controlling the quality of the tubers from the field to the final user, to guarantee food safety
  • Other actions, like communication, or valorisation of numeric innovations are also led.

While continuing our investigation, we tried to understand to what extent those aspects were priorities to the field, and if others were at stake.


Olivier Loridan, a seed potato grower, being interviewed by our team

Loss of production due to current changes

Because of global warming, the agricultural field is facing changes at an unprecedented rate. It has never been so difficult to adapt agricultural behaviors to minimize the crops’ losses.

“Nowadays, we do not have a regular year anymore. This will generate huge problems”:

Olivier Loridan Seed potato grower
is completely aware of the challenges, and gets increasingly worried about the job’s future. And we can assume that soon, “each year will be a new climatic record”. The severe consequences of climate change on agriculture will most likely affect overall food distribution over the world. According to
Bertrand Ouillon President of the GIPT (interprofessional association for the Valorization of the Potato)
potato production has already decreased by 20% over the last few years. Due to many constraints, productors are facing huge concerns towards productivity, as explained by
Loïc Le Meur Head of technical and economic affair at UNPT (potato producers' syndicate)

“Each year will be a new climatic record”

However, we decided to focus on a less known, yet equally devastating consequence of global warming on crops: the proliferation of new pathogens. According to
Georges Freyssinet President of the French association of vegetal biotechnologie (AFBV)
, new phytopathogens are a major current challenge for food security. CNIPT research responsible
Benjamin Louvrier In charge of the research and quality pole within the CNIPT, National interprofessional Committee of Potato
added that the problem of climate change is a real issue, and the professionals have been conscious of it for quite some time now. “This has been done through several levers, such as the improvement of the production techniques, and also through some research axes: improving storage conditions, production techniques, biocontrol, better management of fertilization, good protection of the crops… More and more research and communication are being done on the subject”, he explained.

Context of agricultural diseases

Most of the stakeholders we met (interprofessions, farmers, producers, law makers and scientists) understood the drastic consequences of climate change on production safety, especially on agricultural diseases. More and more efforts are put into research but there are many barriers : it is time consuming and even though “all the actors of the sector are aware of the problem, the answers to bring are not necessarily obvious”, reported to us
Bertrand Ouillon President of the GIPT (interprofessional association for the Valorization of the Potato)
. There are not necessarily all the financial means necessary for research. The huge companies in the potato industry “expect a yield of about 50 tons and today the yield is 40 tons, so the factories do not have sufficient volumes to produce," he said. They are beginning to realize with the decline in production in recent years, that they will have to invest even though it is time consuming.

Biocontrol is a method of plant protection based on natural mechanisms. “Contrary to conventional methods (i.e. pesticides), biocontrol favors the balance between plants and pests rather than eradication”, explained to us
Mounia Khelifa Phytopathology engineer and responsible for the biocontrol program at inov3PT
. An example of biocontrol is quorum quenching. It means counteracting the quorum sensing of bacteria, which is their capacity to communicate together through signal molecules that make them aggressive to the plant when their concentration is high enough. Quorum quenching blocks the signal molecules, impeaching plant aggression.
According to the French Ministry of agriculture and food sovereignty, biocontrol products represent more than 13% of the plant protection market in France in 2021. It is one of the keys for agroecological transition, to limit the use of conventional phytopharmaceutical products that are worrying for the environment and human health. The French government has launched in 2020 a national strategy to promote the deployment of biocontrol, which brings together manufacturers, trade unions, NGOs, distributors of plant protection products. It aims to implement a series of measures in the field of research, experimentation, industrial innovation and deployment at farm level, in order to promote the design and use of biocontrol products as alternatives to conventional plant protection products.

“Agriculture has developed thanks to mechanization, fertilizers and chemistry. There is a shift towards chemistry, but the shift is being taken a little abruptly”

“Agriculture has developed itself thanks to mechanization, fertilizers and chemistry. There is a shift towards chemistry, but the shift is being taken a little abruptly, and it is difficult to take the lead in this shift” said
Xavier Riquiez Head of approved laboratories at Comité Nord
. Biocontrol methods have developed rapidly for large-scale crops, replacing chemical control solutions. “It is very important to find the right conditions of use”, explains
Jérémy Cigna R&D engineer working on the blackleg program at inov3PT
. There is a tendency to implement biocontrol products like conventional products. The products are more sensitive, degradable, unstable and there are success factors to identify. “Using simultaneously biocontrol when conditions are favorable, and conventional methods when there is no choice, is a good alternative” explained
Mounia Khelifa Phytopathology engineer and responsible for the biocontrol program at inov3PT
Charlotte Vassant vegetables producer and president of the Union of Agricultural syndicate of Aisne region
, explained that in her experience, biocontrol was not always efficient and was often too expensive. All the risks of biocontrol are not always controlled, such as for example the use of sulfur. One of the aims of our tool is better understanding the propagation of bacteria in order to create new biocontrol treatments that are more precise and specific. Our tool could help create more efficient and easy ways to use biocontrol tools for producers, and therefore help them reduce their use of pesticides.
“The weapons (i.e. phytosanitary products) against plant diseases disappear each year because of new regulations: we are trying to study every possible solution to replace pesticides. To use those, we need manpower and time, and we lack them", analyzed
Xavier Riquiez Head of approved laboratories at Comité Nord
. For now, complementary tools to biocontrol already exist, but can not be used as the only means of control. Biocontrol methods are not reproducible, as
Mounia Khelifa Phytopathology engineer and responsible for the biocontrol program at inov3PT
said, “there is no instruction sheet when it comes to biocontrol”. That is because they depend on complex conditions of the environment, explains
Georges Freyssinet President of the French association of vegetal biotechnologie (AFBV)
. As a consequence, biocontrol is much more efficient in a greenhouse environment, where we can control the conditions.

“There is no instruction sheet when it comes to biocontrol”

It seems important to notice that the implementation of such methods could be more time consuming: there could be some reluctance from the different actors.
Jérémy Cigna R&D engineer working on the blackleg program at inov3PT
explains: “Farmers expect a return on investment when they use a treatment method”. He said that crop protection products represent a significant portion of the costs incurred by producers. This can be an obstacle when one does not know how to use biocontrol products and it takes time to get used to the product. Suppliers will probably make efforts in the future to clarify the conditions of use. On the other hand,
Denis Gaucher R&D engineer on potato diseases at Arvalis, the vegetal institute, a technical agricultural institute
thinks that farmers are ready to change their methods of crop protection, and more than that, they are volunteers. However, they want to be paid more if they use more technical protection methods that require more skills and time.

Jérémy Cigna R&D engineer working on the blackleg program at inov3PT
explained some of the detection tools used by inov3PT and other research labs: There are solutions for diagnosis that are being developed in order to use treatments more efficiently. The most used tools for detection by inov3PT are genetics amplification and sequencing approaches. They are used to detect all species in the same analysis. Epidemio surveillance is also a diagnosis tool, especially used by the French Ministry for Agriculture. This means collecting samples, and analyzing symptoms in the field or in regional laboratories. This will be used for phenotypic studies, such as aggressiveness on tubers, or genomic characterization by sequencing. Batches are also analyzed to understand the relationship between detection in batches and disease expression in the following year, since a lot of parameters need to be considered to understand the correlation. Eventually, the goal is to create a decision support tool that allows us to assess this risk. Digital technologies, such as decision tools or pathogen detection tools are also a complement to biocontrol. French quality standards require batch traceability, which will be stored in large databases. It is therefore possible to use all this data for the decision support tool, to enable the risk of replanting a batch the following year to be assessed.

Regulation for the treatments is not the only constraint for producers: they are given precise specifications by the distributors. Potato is a large-scale product, destined to a large public. For that reason, they need to offer a convenient product, easy to store, and to carry. The supermarket distribution requires specific features for the potatoes: the consumer prefers clean, well shaped and well colored potatoes. According to
Sylvain Halftermeyer Agronome engineer at the SEMAE, the interprofession for potato seeds and plants
, it is difficult to implement new varieties in supermarkets, despite their environmentally friendly assets. They will prioritize the aesthetic of the potato.
In order to better understand what people know about potato agriculture and what their consumption habits are, we conducted a survey. Most of the people who answered the survey were French, and half of them were students, the other half were from different backgrounds (Pensioner, employee, manager, farmer...). There were a total of 263 answers. The vast majority of participants was concerned about food security, because of economics, health and environmental concerns. Approximately 65% of them were also concerned about pesticides, and were ready to buy more expensive but less chemically-treated potatoes. The industry has to adapt to the final demand. “It is certain that if we changed our consumer demand, the industry would follow”, explained
Jean-Claude Laversin Inspector in the professional organization of the “Comité Nord”
. This leads industrialists to encourage the production of varieties that correspond to the visual expectation of consumers, instead of tastier or more environmentally-friendly ones. They especially require characteristics such as taste and texture, or cooking properties, big potatoes for fries length, in order to accommodate consumers. They also require a reduction of phytosanitary products and a local origin of the products.

“Between what is said and what is done, there are big differences”

We should however differentiate the expectations of the consumers, and their real behavior. According to
Sylvain Halftermeyer Agronome engineer at the SEMAE, the interprofession for potato seeds and plants
, there are greats expectations for more virtuous practices, for instance, the removal of phytosanitary product, and on the other hand consumers are against some biotechnologies that are presented as alternatives solutions. For
Benjamin Louvrier In charge of the research and quality pole within the CNIPT, National interprofessional Committee of Potato
, “the consumer is difficult to understand because between what is said and what is done, there are big differences. When they answer a study they will perhaps give ambitions on their purchases, but when you look at their food baskets, it is completely different” which is reflected in our survey. In his opinion, it is up to the industry to accompany consumers in this transition.
These expectations are somehow driven by the communication of the media on food and nutrition, and an education of the consumer is very important to promote quality products. For
Georges Freyssinet President of the French association of vegetal biotechnologie (AFBV)
, one thing is certain: mindsets are really slow to change, and it is not possible to expect a sudden change in the consumer’s behavior. On another hand, out of the 263 answers of our survey, 246 people (92%) told us that they adapted their habit of consumption to current issues that matter to them. Most of them try to buy local food, or seasonal products, and 86% of these people are doing this for environmental purposes. Consumers are also worried about food security in the future: from our survey, 90% of the people are concerned about the future of our food supply, mostly because of the rise in prices, but also the fear of shortages. However, although most consumers are aware of the issues, it is hard to drastically change habits. The financial aspect remains an important criteria. It seems that for now, to face the increasing food demand, solutions have to be found at the production level.

how to communicate

There is a serious lack of communication to the public: the production of potato plants is not an attractive topic for the media, and the occupation of agricultors lacks exposure. Only a few people ever wonder who is behind their potato dish. There is a need for an education to be done to the public, to explain the functioning of the field and the importance of the variety choice.

Benjamin Louvrier In charge of the research and quality pole within the CNIPT, National interprofessional Committee of Potato
thinks that this is where communication to the general public should be prioritized. “Even if it takes time and resources, it is important that people are curious about what is in their plate, and wonder what is behind products as simple as potatoes” he argued. Some communication actions are led by the CNIPT: the aim is to “boost, enhance, educate” explained
Sabrina Adam Press Relations Manager at CNIPT interprofession for freshly sold potatoes
. Communication is done through trade shows, press relations, advertising, to maximize visibility with the general public. At a fair, they presented the different actors of the sector and the good practices adopted to produce a quality product. An aspect of our project was also to inform the public about several biology themes. The realization of the lack of information for the consumers gave us the idea of posting on social media about food security and agriculture, and to integrate those aspects in our education actions. (see our education actions here!) )

Machine for sorting potatoes according to the expected norms.

Almost all the stakeholders seem to agree on this point: varietal selection is one of the principal research axes for phytopathogen resistance.
Sylvain Halftermeyer Agronome engineer at the SEMAE, the interprofession for potato seeds and plants
explains that the core business of seed production is variety creation. “Remarkable levels of resistance to phytopathogens have been reached,” said
Denis Gaucher R&D engineer on potato diseases at Arvalis, the vegetal institute, a technical agricultural institute
Clément Mabire Scientific responsible for variety creation at the SIPRE station of the Comité Nord Plant (French North Commitee for potato plants)
brought up the fact that industrialists and customers have different expectations, “This is where our work becomes interesting: we have to succeed in accumulating all these qualities in a variety, which is very complicated,” he added. Industrials are also helping create satisfying varieties by testing hundreds of varieties each year exclusive to their company. They are especially looking for varieties with a good yield, resistance to diseases and drought, good conservation properties, and reduced production costs .
Developing a new variety adaptable to emerging threats is a long process.
Xavier Riquiez Head of approved laboratories at Comité Nord
detailed the timeline of the design of a new variety. It can take up to 10 years to generate a variety with a resistance, thanks to genetic crossbreeding. In the end it can take more than 20 years to fully implement a variety in the market. The major issue is that the evolution of the phytopathogen can go faster than the development of the variety.
Clément Mabire Scientific responsible for variety creation at the SIPRE station of the Comité Nord Plant (French North Commitee for potato plants)
summarized the issue: “For abiotic stresses it is easier: heat for example will always be heat, water stress remains the same, the problem, even if it worsens, will not change. While diseases evolve, if we are satisfied with a resistance factor or a simple solution to protect ourselves from them, we shall run straight into the wall: it is the same principle as with the flu.” However, the association of varietal selection, biocontrol, prophylaxis and other method should be a futuristic solution.

“It can take up to 10 years to generate a variety with a resistance, thanks to genetic crossbreeding. In the end it can take more than 20 years to fully implement a variety in the market.”

Scientists do not know how to highlight resistance factors to blackleg disease in new varieties.
Clément Mabire Scientific responsible for variety creation at the SIPRE station of the Comité Nord Plant (French North Commitee for potato plants)
explained that “For mildew, we plant tubers, we let them develop, we write down the percentages of destruction and we manage to determine a grade of resistance. It would be necessary to have the same test with the blackleg disease: inoculate the disease and let it develop to determine a quantitative resistance. Then, grade the varieties and cross the best ones to cumulate the factors of resistance in the offspring. However, right now, we don't know how to do this.” We noticed that thanks to our tool, we could possibly manage to run a similar test, hence combining varietal selection methods and our bioluminescence propagation tracking device to select better varieties to resist the blackleg disease, and ultimately other ones.

We realized that these solutions are rather long to test and implement, so they will not be usable in fields for a long time. That is why we still need diagnosis solutions, such as FIAT LUX, in order to characterize phytopathogens and to develop more specific and efficient treatments.

In Europe, the use of plant protection products is regulated by the regulation (EC) n°1107/2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Integrating a new control method for plant pests on the french market requires (1) the approval of the active substance at the European scale and (2) a market authorization for the product at the national one. Plant protection products are authorized by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety agency following a complete risk assessment performed by ANSES. The applicant shall demonstrate that the active substance fulfils the approval criteria laid down in Article 4 of the above mentioned regulation. In order for a new product to be examined, approved and commercialized on the market, it will take in average 5 to 6 years. Although those delays are important, they are necessary to ensure the safety of use and its efficacity on field.
The approbation of a new product in a EU country relies on European institutions. Few of the stakeholders would probably support quitting the harmonized European framework: having standardized regulations is essential as the EU is a common market. This reduces competition between the different member states and eases the placing on the market everywhere in Europe. Once a substance has been approved, its approbation has to be renewed after some years. In some cases, a substance that is used can be banned because it does not meet the approval standards anymore. Some problems may indeed arise after its entry on the market as a result of new scientific and technical knowledge.

“These last few years, more criteria are taken into account during the re-examination of the product as new scientific knowledge influences evaluation criteria”

These last few years, more criteria are taken into account during the re-examination of the product as new scientific knowledge influences evaluation criteria. For instance, the EFSA guidance for the identification of endocrine disruptors has been approved only in 2018.  The approval criteria to reach the European market at very restrictive in order to ensure a high level of protection of both human and animal health and the environment. Some companies are more likely to turn to other markets, which have less strict norms and rules. Trying to enter a product on Europe’s market can represent a lot of money and energy spent for an uncertain outcome even if it’s a guarantee of quality and safety.
Those new prohibitions are becoming more and more an issue for producers who face a lack of alternative solutions to treat the crops. Hence anticipation plans are being launched to find solutions and anticipate the disappearance of certain products with institutes (like INRAE), farmers' unions, industrialists, and other stakeholders.
We discovered that in order to promote the development of alternative solutions and especially biocontrol the government launched a specific plan  “FRANCE 2030” : a program for energy transition containing 10 objectives. The 6th objective in particular is endowed with 2 billion euros which will be dedicated to the investment for healthier, more sustainable and traceable food.

"Alternative methods are much longer to implement and difficult to apply. We can’t afford to make mistakes: we have to strive for excellence"

Producers bear a huge responsibility, as they have to provide healthy and quality plants each year, while respecting those strict rules and reglementation , both on the plants they produce and on the means of fighting pathogens. Their occupation is thus in constant evolution. There is a constant need to find new solutions against phytopathogens, but in compliance with such regulations, that are becoming increasingly stricter. “Each year we have several solutions of treatment that are no longer approved”, explains
Benjamin Louvrier In charge of the research and quality pole within the CNIPT, National interprofessional Committee of Potato
. "It used to be like an on-off button: if there was mildew, fungicide was used", said
Jean-Claude Laversin Inspector in the professional organization of the “Comité Nord”
. These last years, a lot of fertilizers, pesticides, and fungicides are banned because of health or environmental reasons:
Bertrand Ouillon President of the GIPT (interprofessional association for the Valorization of the Potato)
noted that, in the last 10 years, since many phytosanitary products have been prohibited by agricultural politics, the “easy” chemical response is no longer possible. These new regulations are putting pressure on the producer, because in some cases, they can not find a viable alternative to the treatments. "Alternative methods are much longer to implement and difficult to apply. We can’t afford to make mistakes: we have to strive for excellence" added
Jean-Claude Laversin Inspector in the professional organization of the “Comité Nord”
. For
Olivier Loridan Seed potato grower
, this is a major issue: each year, new phytosanitary products are prohibited, and there is an urge to find alternative solutions, “but we need to have the means to fight: if not, producers will say ‘I’m done’. Here we are now: everything is exploding”. The regulations are made generally at the European level. “The decision makers do not have a clue of the reality in the field”, according to
Olivier Loridan Seed potato grower
, who thinks that politicians have lost the sense of reality. Producers feel the pressure of climate change, and need to adapt in order to keep a high production, and at the same time use less and less pesticides.
Sylvain Halftermeyer Agronome engineer at the SEMAE, the interprofession for potato seeds and plants
also noticed issues in his research field: “As the agricultural context in more tense, traditional chemical control solutions are progressively banned. The actors of the seed industry have to find alternative solutions".


Team members with Jean-Claude Laversin, an expert seed potato inspector, in front of the North Committee

What is the blackleg disease?

Blackleg disease is a plant bacterial disease also called soft rot. In potatoes, it is especially caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya bacteria. It causes the blackening of the plant and the roting of the tuberculous, making them impossible to commercialize. This disease is a scourge for many plant producers, because it propagates extremely quickly. Therefore, when an infected plant is not detected, it can infect many more. For
Jérémy Cigna R&D engineer working on the blackleg program at inov3PT
, the main challenge with blackleg disease is that it can be due to several dozens of different species of pathogen, each with their own characteristics.

To this day, there is no efficient treatment against the blackleg disease.

Xavier Riquiez Head of approved laboratories at Comité Nord
brought up that those pathogens are hardly controllable: the infected lots are not necessarily synonymous with the expression of the disease. It can take years before the disease develops: a batch could never express symptoms, depending on the environmental parameters. Parasites can also appear, even if they were not detected in the initial batch and can develop with certain pedo-climatic conditions. This makes this pathogen very difficult to diagnose. The regulations tolerate up to 1% of diseased plants. If this standard is not reached, lots will be downgraded or will go into another channel. “Some batches may be refused because of the blackleg disease”:
Xavier Riquiez Head of approved laboratories at Comité Nord
told us that although it is hard to detect blackleg disease on plants, there exists some decision support tool, to help diagnose infected plants.
Jean-Claude Laversin Inspector in the professional organization of the “Comité Nord”
told us:

"Blackleg is our pet peeve!"

Most of all, all plants do not develop symptoms for the disease on the field. They can appear later on, during transportation, and therefore infect all the batch. This is a real issue for the producer, who does not have any control on his batch after harvest, and who could not check if his plants are infected or not.
Jérémy Cigna R&D engineer working on the blackleg program at inov3PT
, told us that the blackleg disease is even contagious through generations so if a batch is diagnosed with blackleg disease, the next generation of plants might be infected as well: bacteria remain inside the soils, even when climatic conditions are not favorable to them. Blackleg disease develops in warm and humid environments, making the infection really difficult to prevent. Moreover, climate change seems to worsen the problem, because ideal conditions for the bacteria to grow are more and more frequent.
Xavier Riquiez Head of approved laboratories at Comité Nord
explained to us that "more than 30 years ago, blackleg disease was already present: at that time, there were years with blackleg and others without. In these last years there is almost always a continuous blackleg presence due to several climatic phenomena and the adaptation of certain bacterial strains. At the bacterial level, this is very important: when it's too hot or too humid, the diseases will develop much easier.”

All along the design and the development of our tool, we made sure to always be aware of what was at stake, to make our tool fit as much as possible the needs of the stakeholders. We developed our tool keeping in mind the reality of the field, in parallel to our work in the laboratory. We met many scientists to understand their working method, but also farmers to observe the reality of work in the fields. Whenever we received feedback on how we designed our tool, we made sure to take it into consideration.

How to deal with blackleg disease as a potato plant producer?
According to our principal partner, inov3PT, there is currently no efficient treatment against the blackleg disease. Producers have to find means to prevent the infection in their crops, in order not to risk losses of their production due to an infection, because there is no way to treat an infected plant. Current strategies to fight blackleg disease especially involve prophylaxis, which is the prevention of the disease beforehand, since it can not be cured once in the field. In the case of blackleg disease, Arvalis scientist
Denis Gaucher R&D engineer on potato diseases at Arvalis, the vegetal institute, a technical agricultural institute
explained that it essentially consists in tearing out infected plants and nearby plants to stop the propagation. However, the symptoms are most of the time detected too late. Another precaution that needs to be taken is to work on short cycle strain: the more we multiply the strain over years, the more they are at risk of infection. Moreover, they need to be careful not to contaminate other plants while handling the infected plants.
Olivier Loridan Seed potato grower
also gave us some of the tips he uses to avoid blackleg. He especially said that producers prefer not to harvest plants that grew next to a humid zone, or flooded area, to avoid any risk of contamination to other plants, since humidity is a propagation factor for Dickeya. They try to avoid any excess of water or nitrogen in the fields. The harvest of the plants also needs to take place at the proper moment: not too early, to avoid having too many leaves, but not too late, to avoid rot. They also constantly need to clean up all the machines of the chain and container that have been in contact with potatoes, between each batch. Otherwise, one infected potato in one batch can contaminate the following batch. This cleaning is long and requires qualified labor forces. A better understanding of the infection and transmission of blackleg pathogens would lead to more appropriate and targeted control methods. This is the aim of our tool, which would save valuable time and money for producers.

Creating knowledge of precision

Finding out the concerns of the farmers about trying new uncertain methods that could jeopardize their yearly crop made us think about how our project would play a role within this situation. As we previously explained, even though many technologies are currently being developed to find new environmentally-friendly solutions, those technologies are still not efficient enough to replace pesticides. As it was reported to us by almost every actor, solutions such as biocontrol or even variety selection are not efficient for all pathogens, and especially not for blackleg disease. As we previously explained, producers need to lessen their use of pesticides to face climate change, new regulations, and consumers preferences but solutions that are not pesticides require a more precise and specific use. Especially for biocontrol, we understood that it is necessary to better characterize phytopathogens and biocontrol tools in order to make them easier to use.
The urge to find and improve new treatments for crop’s phytopathogens led us to think about developing a tool to help with the diagnosis, to make it fast, easy, and accurate in order to provide data on the pathogen’s behavior. An advantage is that it does not involve directly and immediately the agricultors. Our tool is creating knowledge, truly bringing the chance to develop an expertise about a particular disease affecting a particular crop.
Hence, agricultors would be dealing with a safe solution that will already have been developed and tested in situ after scientific research, enlightened by the information on the disease brought by FIAT LUX. Even though producers will not directly use our tool, the necessity for them to create better characterized tools was very clear in our discussions with agricultors and syndicates. We think that having more knowledge about pathogens will really help producers use biocontrol instead of pesticides, thus helping them face social constraints while making agricultural practices more respectful of the environment.
Jérémy Cigna R&D engineer working on the blackleg program at inov3PT
highlighted the fact that since the propagation of Dickeya solani is not well known yet, researchers like him need new tools to gain knowledge about the bacteria, in order to create new treatments. Hearing this encouraged us in the characterization of our tool, because we realized that it needs to be as precise as possible to create exact knowledge about pathogens. This exchange also made us realize that our tool needed to be as close as possible to realistic conditions. We therefore needed to know what parameters changed between normal bacterium and our engineered bacterium, in this case Dickeya solani. We especially decided to introduce this aspect in our modeling reflection, and to get help from statistics and math professors to characterize the growth parameters of our bacteria and be as precise as possible (more on our model page). This allowed us to gain knowledge on the behavior of this particular bacterium, and compare it to the non-engineered strain.

Providing non-destructive analysis

The goal of our project is to develop a genetic tool that can be used in the research of solutions to the challenges of tomorrow. More precisely, our tool will allow us to study and understand plant pathogens’ development. After some research and exchange with scientists, we realized that most of the methods of applied research used in this field are destructive, i.e. the plants are infected by a pathogen. After a few days in culture with the presence (or not) of a treatment, the plants are "dissected" to be able to observe the pathogen and analyze its growth. This is often done after extraction of DNA and PCR analysis, explained
Mounia Khelifa Phytopathology engineer and responsible for the biocontrol program at inov3PT
Jérémy Cigna R&D engineer working on the blackleg program at inov3PT
. FIAT LUX was designed to fill the lack of in situ analysis techniques. They especially insisted that the huge advantage of our tool is to provide a “live visualization” of bacteria, allowing scientists to follow bacteria over time, rather than only at a fixed moment and to adapt their biocontrol solutions according to the bacterial evolution in time. This inspired some modifications of our software tool, since we decided to add code to measure some parameters such as speed of propagation, rather than only analyzing the position of the pathogen. We tried to modify our software to provide as much useful information as possible to the users, based on what inov3PT scientists told us.

Dry lab

As far as the dry lab is concerned, the code was always designed with the idea of using less memory space, and optimizing the processing time for environmental reasons. Moreover, we always prioritized accessibility while coding our software. We decided to use Python, because this is an accessible and easy programming language, so that even non IT specialists could understand and appropriate our software. For the graphical user interface, we chose to use Tkinter, mostly used across the world, to increase the accessibility of our software. All along the development of our code, we thought about the easiest structure possible of the code, in order to make it readable for everyone who wants to use it. You can learn more about this on our software page!


Adaptability is at the heart of our tool, and that is exactly what we concluded during our different exchanges. Indeed, to find new varieties or treatments adapted to new pathogens, FIAT LUX must be able to adapt to the maximum variety of phytopathogenic bacteria possible. Our partner inov3PT works on different kinds of pathogens, including mildew.
Denis Gaucher R&D engineer on potato diseases at Arvalis, the vegetal institute, a technical agricultural institute
explained to us that this fungus is also a disaster, and not the only one. According to
Georges Freyssinet President of the French association of vegetal biotechnologie (AFBV)
, the apparition of new threats is a major challenge, and it is crucial that our tool can be used for other pathogens.
This is why we decided, in addition to realizing a proof of concept on Dickeya solani, to look at other pathogens and bacteria in general, in which we could test our tool. We chose pathogens with different assets, in order to open opportunities for other studies. Here are the ones we tried so far:
- Citrobacter rodentium, a laboratory mice pathogen. Bioluminescence imaging has already been used to determine the in vivo colonization dynamics of C. rodentium. We decided to focus on this bacteria in order to enable future comparisons between our tool and other bioluminescent imaging solutions that exist. (Wiles et al. 2006)
- Pseudomonas putida: It can be encountered in diverse ecological habitats. It has a remarkably versatile metabolism, adapted to withstand physicochemical stress, and the capacity to thrive in harsh environments. Owing to these characteristics, there is a growing interest in this microbe for industrial use, therefore, it seemed interessant for us to focus on this pathogen.(Weimer et al. 2020)
- Vibrio natriegens has the fastest growth rate of any known bacterium. This property makes it interesting to open up other kinds of studies with our tool: understanding the properties of the bacteria in vitro. (Weinstock et al. 2016)
- Pseudomonas protegens: it is a model organism used in plant-microbe interactions, biological control of phytopathogens. (Jousset et al. 2014)
Moreover, we decided to integrate a toxin/antitoxin system in our tool, in order to increase the long-term stability of our plasmid in the different pathogens and thus adapt our tool to different hosts.
frp is a gene coding for an enzyme (FMN reductase) recycling the FMN substrate of the reaction producing bioluminescence (Gregor et al. 2018). This enzyme is essential to the proper functioning of our tool. So far, we always worked on bacterial strains that were already producing it, but in order to make our tool adaptable for species not producing this enzyme, we thought of adding the frp gene to our tool. Adding this gene to our tool can also improve its features: frp will increase the production of substrate, and as a consequence, the luminescence. Furthermore, the fiatlux operon was tested in different vectors with different copy numbers in order to find the most optimized for each pathogen.
Here’s the link to our experiments page to find out more !

Bibliographical research

Throughout our bibliographical research we were confronted with several problems to reproduce the manipulations. Most of the time raw data was missing, so we did not have any insight on how to produce and analyze our own data. Sometimes details on the conditions of the manipulations were missing in the material & methods section. This made our experiments more complicated because we could not completely rely on existing protocols for methods that we did not master. Moreover, the material used was not always the one we had (specific kits, automats, software). Facing all these issues made us aware of the importance of adaptability and accessibility of our project. There is a real interest in developing a standardized genetic system that can be used by everyone. This pushed us to develop a standardized tool, with detailed instructions for its use, and everything needed for usage. All along our project, we tried using reproductible protocols, making our software as accessible as possible, and we for example created a hardware device usable to capture images of our tool with a regular camera linked to an accessible raspberry programm. All of this contributes to making our tool as accessible and easy to use as possible. See here our software and hardware pages to find out more!


The software we decided to provide, to analyze the propagation of our luminescent bacteria captured thanks to a basic camera offers several options to capture pictures of luminescence. As it was available in the lab we had access to, we originally chose to use a NightShade LB 985 (Berthold) optical imaging system, equipped with a high resolution CCD camera, a very sensible machine that can detect the different levels of luminescence. We opted for such a machine because of its precision and the quality of the images. After a meeting with inov3PT, we realized that not all laboratories had access to this machine: it costs more than 120,000 USD. We therefore decided to prioritize accessibility to our tool, to enable as many laboratories as possible to use our biological tool. Therefore, we looked for alternative solutions, and came up with the idea to develop a hardware solution: a box of our confection, specially designed to capture effectively bioluminescent images in plants with a simple camera, even with a smartphone with a good quality camera, less expensive and easy to use. To find out more, go directly to our hardware page!

Timelapse (24h) of bioluminescence produced by our biological tool with the bacteria Dickeya solani in chicoree plants

Wet lab

Throughout our experiments, we were advised by our advisors to establish protocols that would minimize our environmental impact and use the least amount of materials. For example, during the purification of the enzyme, we thought about the size of the sephadex column we should use in order to have a good purification, using a minimum of it. We especially discussed with our instructor M. Létisse about the necessary size of the sephadex column (for an exclusion chromatography) to have a good separation while minimizing the use of consumables, for both financial and environmental reasons. Click on our experiments pagefor more!
In a biology laboratory, most of the tools are single-use plastics: pipette cones, Petri dishes, tubes (Falcon and Eppendorf). Plastic pollution represents an ecological problem we are all aware of, so we kept this in mind when developing our protocols by optimizing the number of conditions of manipulations and pipetting methods. We are aware of this increasing concern, even in companies, and the lab is the place where we mostly compromised to conduct our experiments in the most efficient way possible, while respecting our ecological values.
Moreover, all along the experiments, we had contact with many people from the MAP lab, which is the microbiology lab in which both our PIs work. We conducted most of the experiments in their lab, which gave us the opportunity to discuss with many of the researchers there. During our first experiments to introduce our plasmid in E. coli, we had some difficulties, and the solution came from one of the researchers from the lab, who gave us the advice to change the antibiotics concentrations we were working with. This advice allowed us to successfully continue our wet lab experiments. This is one of many examples of collaboration we had with the people working at the lab (see more on our collaboration page!). Working with them gave us the opportunity to gain knowledge and advance faster in our project.


How will scientists use our tool?
FIAT LUX cannot be used directly by producers, because it cannot be used in fields. However, it will be extremely helpful to scientists who work on diagnosis and treatments for crop diseases. Especially, our tool brings new opportunities to the research field: it enables us to follow a live infection throughout time without destroying the plant or altering its development. This opens up the possibility to collect precious data about the pathogen’s behavior. It will especially be useful to inov3PT, research organism for potato seed growers, and Arvalis, research organism for consumption potato producers.

"The fact that it is a real time monitoring enables us to see if our biocontrol agent is efficient to destroy the luminescent Dickeya solani"

Jérémy Cigna R&D engineer working on the blackleg program at inov3PT
expressed his enthusiasm for our tool to follow bacteria in vivo, even in situ, and
Mounia Khelifa Phytopathology engineer and responsible for the biocontrol program at inov3PT
expressed the idea of using our project to test new biocontrol tools. For example, we could track conjointly pathogen bacteria and biocontrol bacteria by making both produce luminescence at different wavelengths. As she said, "The fact that it is a real time monitoring enables us to see if our biocontrol agent is efficient to destroy the luminescent Dickeya solani". This would allow them to know exactly how the bacteria interact together. It can also allow us to observe quorum sensing by using our tool with an inducible promoter. This way, we could observe luminescence when a certain quorum sensing level is reached. Our tool can help understand the primary contamination (how these bacteria arrive on the host): according to
Jérémy Cigna R&D engineer working on the blackleg program at inov3PT
, this phenomenon is still poorly understood. Once the bacterium has entered the plant, it is much more difficult to develop control strategies, hence, it is primordial to understand the primary contamination. For example, according to
Olivier Loridan Seed potato grower
, pathogens usually enter the plant through the tuber, but last year for example, the blackleg entered through the stem, by simple contact with the soil: it will now be possible to study this phenomenon. Indeed, all of this work will be indirectly useful to producers who need to know the methods of infection of bacteria.
Virginie Gobert science communication manager for inov3PT
stated: "We can make progress happen thanks to this tool". Our tool has potential as it enables us to make studies kinetically.

Generally, our tool would be useful to study bacterias’ behavior under several circumstances. For example, it would be interesting to test our tool in a controlled environment: inoculate the bacterium in the soil, in water, to understand how they reach the plants. Of course, this would be done in isolated and secured field batches to ensure that our bacteria can not interact with the exterior environment. It is still a challenge to reproduce the environments in the labs. In vitro, we need to reproduce conditions such as contact, irrigation, different substrates, and lots of other factors in order to say that one soil is more likely to infect with blackleg than another. We could also study how the bacteria behave in the plants at different times and maturities to help know when to clear the plants. It would also help identify the means of contamination of the plants, such as how fast Dickeya contaminates, or study the propagation of bacteria with the humidity, the distance between plants, and the UV. It would also be interesting to know how long bacteria stay on the different surfaces: leafs, soils…

"Our tool can show directly which plants are more sensitive to the disease!"


Greenhouse potato plants for certification testing at the Nord Plant Committee


P3 level analytical laboratory at the North Plant Committee

Some varietal phenotypes are more likely to develop blackleg or other infections than others: it does not only depend on genes but also on phenotypes. In other words, within the same variety, phenotype differences in leaf size or color, for example, could be a criterion for disease development or not. Some phenotypes could also worsen the symptoms. If varieties have an odd phenotype, they should be removed or monitored to avoid the risk. Our tool could help identify risky phenotypes. This would especially be an advantage for variety selection researchers such as

Clément Mabire Scientific responsible for variety creation at the SIPRE station of the Comité Nord Plant (French North Commitee for potato plants)
. Indeed, for variety selection, the “first step is to characterize the plants to know the genetic diversity”. Our tool can show directly which plants are more sensitive to the disease.

We started with an idea: make a detection tool that would allow scientists to create cures and diagnoses more efficiently and not involve pesticides in those processes. We did not really know precisely how labs could use it for biocontrol methods, thought about how to make it adaptable, construct a device to observe our results, or even how it could be useful to future iGEM teams. Looking back at the entirety of our work and all the ethical and human reflection that was conducted, thanks to every single person we met, every trail they led us to follow and every adaptation it led us to think of, we managed to close the loop between what was needed and what was actually designed.

closing the loop

Even though we are very proud of our tool, we must recognize that there are still some limitations that need to be kept in mind while using the tool. It is not possible to use FIAT LUX directly in the “regular” field because it is constituted of engineered bacteria, so it would neither be safe nor allowed to place those directly in the environment. Our tool needs to be used in the lab, under the careful control of scientists, which requires to recreate a realistic context. In order to recreate the real soil conditions, with all its bacteria and fungi, there are a lot of interactions to take into account. To do so, some methods already exist, based on the sequencing of all the DNA present in the soil to have an overview on the flora present.

Another limitation is the compromises that we needed to make in order to produce the best tool possible, while keeping up with our timeline and our values. We could have pushed the tool further with a system called pDawn which is a light-inducible promoter (an idea we had, to make a switch on/off button and make the tool work only in the dark so FIAT LUX would not impact the behavior of the bacteria when we do not want to study the luminescence). After our investigations and meeting with all these actors of the field, we chose to prioritize accessibility and adaptability. In the end we decided to keep a constitutive expression of fiatlux in order to offer a qualitative characterization and especially to leave room for future reworkings and improvements of projects for future iGEM teams.

Right now, it’s only possible to implement our tool in cultivable bacteria. Non-cultivable and difficult to culture bacteria are rather difficult to exploit, and we cannot add our plasmid in a bacteria that we can not control in vitro. After some research, we found out that the phytopathogens that are responsible for most of the crop losses are cultivable. (Mansfield et al. 2012). Hence, while we hope that one day all bacteria will be cultivable in the lab, it does not influence so much the repercussions of our project on phytopathogenic bacteria.

The last limitation that we considered is an ethical limitation. Indeed, even though we conducted our project with the goal to help create more planet-friendly technologies, especially biocontrol tools, we do not have any control on how people will use our project. FIAT LUX was made to create knowledge, however we can not control what this knowledge will lead to. Our tool might as well be used for example to create toxic products for the environment, even though that is absolutely not its purpose. Science can never be neutral, and innovation can always be diverted from its original intention.

Throughout all of our project, we aimed at meeting with as many actors of the sector as possible, which allowed us to take a step back and realize how our tool could possibly impact the current challenges in the agricultural field and how its implementation could be influenced by all the factors inherent to this field. Having an upstream vision on the whole chain made us realize one thing: our tool intervenes at the basis of the chain, as a fundamental research project, and thus makes it possible to affect, in some ways, all the actors with whom we engaged.

Communicating with all these different interlocutors enabled us to understand how this field works, and to confront different points of view. The strong human interactions we had made us realize the reality of the field and the difficulties faced by these stakeholders. We were able to meet passionate people, who communicated their interest in their expertise field, and led us towards new ways of thinking. Such exchanges pushed us to improve our tool and to make it as complete and functional as possible. This communication process allowed us to design a tool that reflects the existing needs of stakeholders and ultimately consumers, but also brought us enriching human contacts, which is essential to integrate when it comes to scientific innovation. As we previously stated, science cannot remain neutral. It is true in the choice and conception of an idea as well as in its final application: we truly strived to incorporate this human aspect into our work.


Together, we can build the agriculture of tomorrow.


Heimpel GE, Yang Y, Hill JD, Ragsdale DW. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(8):e72293. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072293
Wozniacka G. Roundup’s other problem: glyphosate is sourced from controversial mines [Internet]. Civil Eats; 2019 Jun 24 [cited 2021 Mar 16]. Available from: https://civileats.com/2019/06/24/roundups-other-problem-glyphosate-is-sourced-from-controversial-mines/
Folmar, LC, Sanders HO, Julin AM. Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and several of its formulations to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Arch Environ Con Tox. 1979; v 8, 269-278. Thiel T, Drossel B. Impact of stochastic migration on species diversity in meta-food webs consisting of several patches. Journal Theor Biol. 443: 2018; 147-156.
Lau WKM, Kim KM. The 2010 Pakistan flood and Russian heat wave: teleconnection of hydrometeorological extremes. J Hydrometeorol. 13.1 2012; 392-403. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-11-016.1. Web. 20 Aug. 2021.
Weinstock et al. (2016) Vibrio natriegens as a fast-growing host for molecular biology. Nature methods VOL.13  (NO.10) https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00322-1410.1038/nmeth.3970
Haverkort, A.J., Verhagen, A. Climate Change and Its Repercussions for the Potato Supply Chain. Potato Res. 51, 223 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11540-008-9107-0
Romero, F., Cazzato, S., Walder, F., Vogelgsang, S., Bender, S.F., van der Heijden, M.G. A., 2021. Humidity and high temperature are important for predicting fungal disease outbreaks worldwide. New Phytol., https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.17340
Ministry of Agriculture and Food Sovereignty, 2022. Le biocontrôle, un ensemble de solutions pour réduire l'usage des produits phytosanitaires conventionnels. https://agriculture.gouv.fr/le-biocontrole-un-ensemble-de-solutions-pour-reduire-lusage-des-produits-phytosanitaires
Santé et protection des végétaux. (no date.). Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Souveraineté alimentaire. visited on october 1st 2022, https://agriculture.gouv.fr/sante-et-protection-des-vegetaux
Potato Facts and Figures. (2017, 2 novembre). International Potato Center. visited on october 1st 2022, https://cipotato.org/potato/potato-facts-and-figures/
2021 one of the seven warmest years on record, WMO consolidated data shows. (2022, 19 january). World Meteorological Organization. visited on october 1st 2022, https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/2021-one-of-seven-warmest-years-record-wmo-consolidated-data-shows
Pesticides and the Climate Crisis. (no date). Northwest Center for Alternatives to Pesticides. visited on october 1st 2022, https://www.pesticide.org/pesticides_and_climate_crisis
Ministry of Agriculture and Food Sovereignty, 2022. Surveillance en santé des végétaux : les bilans sanitaires, https://agriculture.gouv.fr/surveillance-en-sante-des-vegetaux-les-bilans-sanitaires
Les acteurs de la filière semences et plants. (s. d.). SEMAE. visited on october 1st 2022, https://www.semae.fr/acteurs-filiere-semences/
La recherche et le développement en pommes de terre. (2021, 9 septembre). CNIPT. visited on october 1st 2022, https://www.cnipt.fr/recherche-developpement-qualite/la-recherche-et-le-developpement
Recherche et Développement. (no date). visited on october 1st 2022, http://www.gipt.net/page.php?theme=4
Jousset, Alexandre, Joerg Schuldes, Christoph Keel, Monika Maurhofer, Rolf Daniel, Stefan Scheu, et Andrea Thuermer. 2014. « Full-Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas Protegens CHA0 ». Genome Announcements 2(2):e00322-14. https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00322-14.
Weimer, Anna, Michael Kohlstedt, Daniel C. Volke, Pablo I. Nikel, et Christoph Wittmann. 2020. « Industrial Biotechnology of Pseudomonas Putida: Advances and Prospects ». Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 104(18):7745 66. https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00322-1410.1007/s00253-020-10811-9
Wiles, Siouxsie, Karen M. Pickard, Katian Peng, Thomas T. MacDonald, et Gad Frankel. 2006. « In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of the Murine Pathogen Citrobacter Rodentium ». Infection and Immunity 74(9):5391 96. https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00322-1410.1128/IAI.00848-06
Gregor, Carola, Klaus C. Gwosch, Steffen J. Sahl, et Stefan W. Hell. 2018. « Strongly Enhanced Bacterial Bioluminescence with the Ilux Operon for Single-Cell Imaging ». Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115(5):962‑67. https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00322-1410.1073/pnas.1715946115
Mansfield, John, Stephane Genin, Shimpei Magori, Vitaly Citovsky, Malinee Sriariyanum, Pamela Ronald, Max Dow, Valérie Verdier, Steven V. Beer, Marcos A. Machado, Ian Toth, George Salmond, et Gary D. Foster. 2012. « Top 10 Plant Pathogenic Bacteria in Molecular Plant Pathology: Top 10 Plant Pathogenic Bacteria ». Molecular Plant Pathology 13(6):614‑29. https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00322-1410.1111/j.1364-3703.2012.00804.x
Camille, S. (2021, July 1st). Stratégie nationale sur les perturbateurs endocriniens. Ministères Écologie Énergie Territoires. visited on October 1st 2022, https://www.ecologie.gouv.fr/strategie-nationale-sur-perturbateurs-endocriniens.
France 2030, objectif 6 : accélérer la révolution agricole et agroalimentaire. (no date.). Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Souveraineté alimentaire. Visited on October 1st 2022, https://agriculture.gouv.fr/france-2030-objectif-6-accelerer-la-revolution-agricole-et-agroalimentaire
La stratégie nationale de déploiement du biocontrôle. (no date.). Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Souveraineté alimentaire. visited on October 1st 2022,https://agriculture.gouv.fr/la-strategie-nationale-de-deploiement-du-biocontrole