An overview of how we made our packaging cheaper, aesthetic, and efficient


To improve bacterical cellulose (BC) production, we implemented a cost-efficient media, a co-culture system, and aesthetic designs. To bring down the costs of growth media for K. xylinus we used recycled fruit waste. Our co-culture used modeling and a three step culturing system to understand the dynamics of BC-producing bacteria, K. xylinus, and PHB&nisin-producing bacteria, E. coli. We also manipulated the pH of cabbage dye to give our packaging unique colours, and 3D printed molds to create box-like structures out of BC.

To ensure our proposed solution was effective and relevant to customer needs, our team employed an iterative human-centered design process:

  1. Understand the Problem: How can we optimize bacterial cellulose production?
  2. Research and Ideate Solutions: Identify a way to reduce costs, incorporate color, ensure even distribution of our proteins, and 3D sculpt a box
  3. Design Solutions: Use fruit waste media, cabbage dye, a co-culture between E. coli and K. xylinus, and bioscultping
  4. Create and Test: Test ratios of different media, manipulate color with pH, perform a 3-step co-culture experiment, and create 3D printed designs for sculpting
  5. Evaluate: Use visuals such as change in color, and UV light to evaluate the production

The cycle of HP-informed iteration will continue as we further develop Cellucoat and explore further applications.